Nuclear Arm-Race
 

At least 20 million people have been killed in 150 (one hundred and fifty) armed conflicts since 1945. Casualties: ‘First world war 5% civilian was killed. Second world 50% of civilians were killed and in Lebanon war, 90% of the deaths were woman and children.’1

STRENGTH OF DESTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS:

‘A twenty megaton thermos nuclear bomb exploded on a clear day at a ground level on a large city would create a fireball one and half miles in diameter, with a temperature of twenty to thirty million degrees Fahrenheit. Everything in the town area, the streets and the earth below and all living thing will be vaporized at six miles from the epicentre. All people will instantly be killed by a huge silent heat flash travelling at the speed of light. Glass would melt and the building will collapse when hit by a supersonic shock wave and wind of 300 hundred miles per hour.

Even mild wind of 20 miles per hour would carry fall out as far as 1500 miles where everyone exposed could receive a lethal dose within 24 hours. The sub-lethal dose would produce an increased incidence of stillbirths, fetal malformation, leukaemia and cancer. In subsequent generation, genetic damage would probably appear.’2

1.1. HISTORY OF ARM EVOLUTION:

Man used arms to defend themselves against wild animals. It developed as killing wild animals and accumulating foods. In the Stone Age, the axe was used to kill large animals bigger than their size. As thinking ability and the population of human being increased, the use of available materials developed to protect their life from different threats. Thus human being became a dominant animal of the animal kingdom.

Fire played a vital role for self-defence, the method of controlling fire and producing fire was one of the significant achievements of mankind. When the population of human being increased, they need more area for collecting foods and they have to be stronger than other clans of tribes. They started to produce more weapons to protect them from others.

The present situation of the huge stockpile of destructive weapons is the result of being super between their human fellow. So that they will be able to control more territory than others which is reflected as their development.

During the First World War, very few human lives were sacrificed compared to the Second World War during the First World War, there were no stockpiles of destructive weapons, so destruction was less.

‘During the decades of 1947 to 1978, USA alone had spent over a trillion dollars on armaments which is three times more than the figure of its participation in the second world war.’3

1.2. IMPERIALISM AND ARM DEVELOPMENT

Nimananda Rijal
Author

In the history of the development and evolution, many Emperors of different territories tried to rule this planet by their military power. Dutch, British, Germans, Japanese, Moguls, Byzantine and many more were ruled different countries. At that time there was an obligation to defend their country from being yoke if imperialism. So the people developed the arms which can protect them from other rulers. It was a symbol of development and power. Even tiny countries made canons to protect their country. Many wars are fought to get free from colonial powers and they have succeeded to some extent. After the Second World War, many countries of the third world became free and people saw the tragedy f being underdeveloped. So the government started to develop the arms military capabilities and some of them again emerged with imperialistic ideas. They tried to be the boss of the world. Since the October revolution of Soviet Russia in 1917, the cold war era started. The era was known as the arm-race era.

Together with the demolition of the colonialism, a new progressive ideology emerged threatening the rotten social system. Society always progresses towards the truth and justice. To demolish this emerged power, the imperialist formed a group to control the threat of social progressive force.

1.3. ARM RACE AND IDEOLOGICAL CONFLICTS

Russian October revolution emerged as a threat to the capitalists and their values. So the west and allies were more frightened. The progressive force was growing like a veld fire all over the world with the change and liberation. These progressive forces were attacking the imperialism and colonialism throughout the world. Liberation movements were growing. As a result, many countries were liberated and towards the end of 1970, almost all colonized countries were free. Newly established socialist countries were under attack of imperialism and colonial power. The imperialistic forces tried to overthrow newly born socialistic system using old revisionist forces of the country. Even it happened in Soviet Russia. In 1921 and 22 around two million active counter-revolutionaries flooded to Paris, Berlin, Istanbul and in the capitals of other bourgeoisie countries and continued to fight against the land of Soviets from there.

The Soviet Union built up their military capabilities to protect socialism. So west allies were more frightened by the emerging forces if workers and they build up their capabilities to suppress the movement of the working class. In 1932 most of the German voted for Hitler. The votes of the communist were also rising. Hitler claimed that only the Nazis could prevent a communist from taking over. Basically, the world divided into two polar, socialism versus capitalism.

Capitalism basically based on the exploitation of the labour forces and creating a monopoly on the world trade. They were highly concentrated to exploit the natural resources of the third world countries. The division of society was between exploiter and exploited class. The founder of Marxism established the relationship between two historical processes; the emancipation of the working classes from bourgeois oppression, on the one hand, the struggle of the oppressed nations against colonialism on the other. Lenin stresses that ‘the replacement of capitalism by socialism is a historical epoch comprising whole series of democratic and revolutionary movements, including the national liberation movement, in the underdeveloped, backward and oppressed nations.’

The main role of the October revolution was to spread the national liberation movement. The colonial powers backed by imperialistic power were suppressing the national feelings and at the same time, colonialism was hampering the development of the economy, culture, etc. During the Second World War, the western power attempted to be free from colonial powers those patriots were from Egypt, Syria, Algeria, Madagascar, Malaya and the countries of Indochina.

The Soviet army had made major contribution to defeat the imperialistic power. One step forward and two steps backwards policy was utilized when the red army fought against the German fascism. ‘The Soviet Union lost 20 million lives in the war against the Nazis (Hitler) defending themselves and rest of the world. (See: The Soviet Union in World War II)

‘In December 1960, 15th UN General Assembly session adopted a historic declaration on the granting of independence to colonial countries and peoples.’ It was a heavy blow to the imperialistic power and they failed for the direct rule as a colony and adopted a new method which is known as Neocolonialism. Under this method, these imperialistic powers are controlling the economy of the third world countries so that they will move around their orbit. In one hand imperialistic powers are lowering down their flags, on the other hand, they are attacking massively newly emerged forces of the working class. To full fill their desire and creating the market for their product they engaged to build up the arms and organizing capitalistic forces against the working class of forces. Globally military presence of the imperialistic power is the main aim of controlling the growing popularity of the working class, the formation of NATO in 1950 is one of the major steps of military organization of the capitalistic forces. The massive aid and military presences of USA determine the guaranty of security of Europe. ‘An elaborate system of formal alliance around the Eurasia rim land a supplemented Washington’s bilateral or otherwise multilateral securities to Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Australia and New Zealand.’

The people liberation movement was in full swing and the Soviet Union have supported some of these liberation movements and provided some facilities. The liberation movement no longer remained the people’s movement; the two super power had over taken. So ‘The Soviet Union leap forging of the old containment ring has eventuated the acquisition of facilities with varying degree of access in numerous third world locals Algeria, Angola, Cuba, Ethiopia, India, Kampuchea, Libya, Mozambique, Peru, South Yemen, Syria and Vietnam.’

All these military presences and their allied made the world as a ball of two big powers; for influencing the underdeveloped countries, they have piled the destructive weapons and sold for their puppets. ‘The basing access co-relate with a close arm supplier-client relationship featuring a sole or predominant major power role.’ Some resources reported that ‘US bases have been reduced to about 700 from 7,000 during World War II.’

During the peak stage of the ideological conflict, national liberation movements were interfered by the superpowers and prolonged the civil war; Angola, Vietnam and Mozambique were the victims of the superpowers. The world was a battleground for testing their ideology. These superpowers and allies are contributed to the most if the human misery in the 20th Century.

Intervention on the liberation movement is a tragic aspect of human life; the social conflicts are for the betterment of their society. It sprouts as exploitation grows in the society. These conflicts cannot be controlled by the arms and cannot be liberated by the foreign military power. Liberation is an internal phenomenon of the society. The society should be ready for the liberation from exploitation then the society will be liberated; no one can control the liberation which is driven by the united power of the people. Every aspect of the liberation movement should be uplifting the life of the people. If the society is dedicated for their own betterment what is the use of interventions. The imperialistic powers do not want to see the society other than their developed; they considered it as threat for them.

1.4 SPACE RACE

In 1955, both USA and USSR had announced their attention to launch small scientific satellites by 1957 as a contribution to the International Geophysical Year but the American had no idea. The Russian launched their first SPUTNIK successfully then American took it as their political and prestige value. ‘Let us get this particular show- not on the road but off the ground.’4 After three weeks, the Sputnik did not send the signals, the USA continued the wok on the Navy’s space project at the American Eastern test range at Cape Canaveral Florida. ‘On third November Soviet launched Sputnik-2’.5 To make it more attractive, they had sent a dog in it. ‘On December 6, 1957 just two months after Sputnik-1, the American were ready to lift off into marathon race.6 It failed to inter into orbit. The Soviet Union launched another model Luna-2 landed in the moon after 34 hours of lift off.’ Up to 1959, there were 35 space launches-19 of them failed all those 19 were American. 7

Both super power have taken their space project as their political and ideological prestige. Scientifically advanced countries had influenced in the arms production and selling. The American get to blow in space projects; so they organized and ordered for increasing the arms budget in their alliances e.g. especially in NATO countries. On the other side, the USSR was suffering from defending the new social order and economy was not fostering as technological advancement. Both powers had spent a quite substantial amount in their space projects. They are using their, satellite for different purposes most of them are collecting information for spying with each other and they were creating terror to the people.

After six years of NATO’s birth, the socialist block organized under WTO in 1955. This was established as a competitive force with NATO. The people of USA and USSR were not willing to see the arm-race between two superpowers but authorities were creating scandals of attack from each other. To justify the expenditure on destructive weapons, they have given the name of ‘national security’.

Now, the space is full of satellites most of them are laying as wreckage. ‘In 1989 NASA scientist were astound to discover a cloud of debris’8. There is no count who and how many satellites are sent to the apace. The future generation will be survived in the debris of the wreckage if these planets allow them to survive.

1.5 CHEMICAL WAR: 1960 -1980:

People want change to make their life easier and better, which has been happening throughout the history of mankind. The same way Vietnamese revolt to overthrow the feudal system of Vietnam. A more interesting thing happened; the USA took interest to control the people’s desire for change as if it happened in their own country. They deployed the US army, started bombarding the areas where most people were living. They have taken the ground for testing their newly invented chemicals which they spread throughout the forest of Vietnam. The US strategy is of bombing in a massive area and intensive chemical and mechanical forest destruction. The ultimate aim manifested as testing the effectiveness of chemicals in war. In short, this US strategy represented the intentional disruption of both the natural and human ecology of the region.9

‘More than thousand chemicals were tested in the USA during second world war.’ 10 The USA eventually expanded a volume of more than 72 million of litres; the major anti-plant agent that were employed by the USA, in Indochina War. They were colour coded’ as orange, white and blue.11 The chemicals were used for military purpose, first, UK attempted to use chemicals as military weapons in Malaya.

Some of the third world countries also have access of chemical weapons. A large quantity is stocked in Iraq and Germany. In the world, more than 150 thousands tones chemical weapons and 55 tons of highly toxic nerve agents are stockpiled. A large part of it is deployed in Europe. Even some of the cult group has used nerve agents in Japan. These nerve agents are very deadly weapons which can kill millions of people by few kgs. The American has put in to service UX the most powerful organ no phosphorus toxic agent. Whether taken through respiratory organ or applied to the skin one Kg. of that agent can kill almost four million people.12 such kind of deadly chemical weapon developed and stockpiled around the globe. Due to security region, all countries do not expose what they have possessed but most of the regional powers shave these type of chemical and biological weapons.

1.6 CHEMICAL WEAPONS AND ITS EFFECT ON HUMAN

The people and the forest of Vietnam became the testing ground where we can see the effects of chemicals on human and in entire ecological system of Vietnam. The chemical weapons destroyed most of the flora and fauna and wild animals of Vietnam. Short term effect could be eradicated but it has left the long term effect on human. Adverse effect of chemicals are chromo some defect and malformation of the fetus. The used orange agent it contains Dioxin. ‘Human exposure to dioxin occurred both directly at the time of spraying and indirectly through the diet owing its lengthy environmental persistency and its more or less environmental mobility (with movement occurring up food chains which culminates in human).12 If any chemicals enter in food chain as a form of poison it will effect to the new generation. The war for new generation which very dangerous to the human existence.

An intensive study showed that ‘Dioxin is an extra ordinary potent dysfunction; It is shown in laboratory mammals to be Carcinogenic (causing cancer), Teratogenic (causing birth defects) and its lab Oratory test has shown that it is potentially Mutagenic (causing genetic is DNA or gene damage.13

It showed that only one super power can make subsequent damage in the environment. What about other super powers, they have not sat back as spectators; they have also developed chemical weapons for their own security. It explicated that use of chemical weapons even to possess only might be a threat to the human existence. Let us look at other examples of \nuclear weapons displays around the globe which are more destructive than chemical weapons.

1.6 NUCLEAR WARHEAD AROUND THE GLOBE:

Development of the nuclear warhead is entirely the game of two blocks. They have produced nuclear warheads to maintain their supremacy and to fool around their puppets. They are relying their security on nuclear-related technical facilities which are deployed in different military bases which are in the strategic points of the globe. Most of the development has done by own country but they have a full range of capacity to cover the globe within no time.

‘The USA and its NATO allies had continued to deploy nuclear armed. Hercules air defence missiles. There are 320 Nike Hercules missiles in Germany only.14 These Hercules are the old models which can strike around 160 miles in average. As time pass on the developed technology is improved with more accuracy so these old model was replaced by conventional. Improved Hawk and patriotic missiles. These new improved missiles are deployed around the globe especially in the NATO allies such as Belgium, German, Italy, Netherlands and Turkey. Some of these are also deployed in South Korea.

So-called power balance concept has robed the happiness of mankind; if we come to know about the power play of these two superpower blocks then we will realize the position of human being in this planet. Not only the USA, The same route also followed by the Soviet Union. ‘USSR also deployed several models of nuclear-armed SAMS: ABM-1B Galosh, the SJ-04/08, and SA-Gammon. The Soviet Union deployed a total of 2500 SAMS; many of them are nuclear capable.15.

In 1983, Ronald Regan said that one day America ‘might make ballistic nuclear weapons.’16 He wanted America to go ahead in all aspect of technological development especially weapons and the tone of the language spoken was as the supermen reality of the universe. Let us read another tone of Regan, ‘We will maintain sufficient strength to prevail if need be. And they (new nuclear missile system is our best hope in …winning).

All these examples show that nuclear warhead has taken the measure for war-winning, the war with whom? It might be with the existence of human being. They had linked arm development with the national security’ whereas the developed arms possessed the capacity of the destruction of the entire planet and its living thing.

Nuclear bombs Neutron bombs and atom bombs are the achievements of so-called superpowers. They can destroy the world’s entities about 13 times as one source coated. These superpowers are ready to fire the fireballs. If they feel their interest is jeopardized in any part of the planet. These superpowers are capable to monitor the activities of any part of this planet. They can detect very tiny things from their spying satellites.

1.7 ETHICS OF WAR AND ARM RACE:

Basic aim of the war is to win and rule. The powers had made targets for entire population of the world and it will increase even to capture other planet in the modern war. It had clearly shown in the second world war’ at the time of second world war, the USA had few atom bombs and use against the people of Japan. This is a historic example where the law of war was broken and civilians were made targets. Time to time fascist powers had threatened the human lives during the wars. What the plants of Vietnam had done to the people of America, why the forest of Vietnam destroyed massively by chemicals. Were those innocent children, animals, women and elderly people enemy of the American soldier and people? Certainly, they were not. When an imperialistic power involves in the civil war they destroy everything and everyone; fascist will make every possible means to make wars in their favour because the ethics of war is eradicated from their vocabulary.

There is no such measure to control the technically advanced war against the civilian; fascist will make the major target to the civilian. The word ‘ethic’ is removed during the war. The ego of superpower will not let them down; so they will use any available means to destroy adversaries. It will use any available means to destroy adversaries. It will not destroy only their enemies, they will also be destroyed.

During Second World War, on 7th December 1941 ‘Japan used suicide air craft Eagle 353 destroy the American warships and military. They killed 2403 militaries and destroyed 18 US warships in Pearl Harbor in America.17 In the Gulf War (16th January 1991) the milk powder producing factory for children bombarded by the USA and it’s allies. It indicates that the word of humanism is eradicated from the dictionary of the superpower. What had done by the children of Iraq to the USA and it’s allied. The child of Iraq will revive the history. Will those children forgive them?

Affect of radiation will appear after a long time. During the Gulf War radioactive weapons were disposed and the effect appeared in 1993. ‘American soldiers who were involved in the Gulf War were affected by mysterious diseases. It is believed that they are highly affected such as memory loss18. What is happening at the side of Iraq is unknown. An American nuclear physicist A.W.Weinberg has given some sort of explanation for understanding the destructive nature of nuclear products such as weapons and reactors. He said that ‘there is an understandable drive on the part of men of good will to build up the positive aspects of nuclear energy, simply because the negative aspects are so distressing.19

These superpowers are keeping the entire entities under the very hot fireball which we human being ignored to feel it; we labelled it as development. We people also part and partial of it. Have we ever organized protest marches when our countries testing and developing nuclear and chemical weapons? Certainly no we became proud of it; my country developed nuclear weapons, so we are great. These Ahankara (ego) pushed to the entire human being under the fireball. The existence of nuclear warheads, nuclear bombs and other bombs are a threat to the existence of human being. The history pointed us that there is no ethics on war; the only ethic is winning.

People are not concerned about what is happening around their environment; the governments have misunderstood the power of people. They have been exploiting the weak point of the people. We have elected the government; it does not mean that they are doing the right thing; because there is no transparency between government and people. In the name of creating jobs, they have made big industries only for producing mass destructive weapons. The people want to overthrow the corrupted and based on the rotten system; they are protected by these superpowers and supplied arms instead of controlling arms. The people have to be vigilant as watchdogs to the wrongdoings against humanity.

Kuwait was captured by the Saddam Hussain, what the children of Iraq had done. The milk factory was bombarded; why was it done? It proved that in the war there is no ethics; the 20th-century wars were fought without regulations. Most of the victims were women, children and elderly people. The nuclear weapons producer does not understand that the weapons and bombs do not recognize the producer and adversaries. It is made only for destruction.

1.7.POST COLD WAR:

Cold war was the main source of arm race. During this period both block did understand the language of power. Powerful one is determined who possess the most destructive weapons. These unbridled powers are the one who brings poverty, main nutrition, unemployment, genetic disorder and they tried to create horror around the globe. If they had used the amount which had spent for arm development, the world would have turned to be a paradise. Once Brezhnev said that ‘we are forced to improve our defense, I repeat we are forced to do so because we are faced with an unbridled arm race’ 20. This unbridled arm-race was robbing to mankind 400 (four hundred billion) a year and 1 (one) billion at day.21

After collapsed of Soviet USSR, which was trying to establish a socialism in the country, cold war era came to the end but more violent social order are emerging; Somalia, Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Pressure on North Korea and many more are the examples, Still the super power and its NATO allied are seeking social control by using military power. \use of military power for peace and prosperity is not the solution. It is the domination. If any society feels dominated, it will manifest as revolt after some time, still people trying to be escaped to be the slave of the power.

These superpowers do not want others to develop the nuclear warheads because on the humanitarian ground but the reality is different. If they are really committed to humanity, why are they not committed to dismantle the nuclear war heads which they have possessed, simply they do not want to develop as their parallel force in the third world countries. Always they want to make the third world countries depending on them even for small matters of their own.
Can we believe that during Second World War who did not hesitate for killing more than one hundred thousand people of Japan and left with genetic damage for thousands of people, will not use another nuclear bomb if their interest is jeopardized?

Scientist have seen the external threat from asteroids and these super powers want to destroy the asteroid using nuclear war heads but it is a utopian thinking. First of all, asteroid should be destroyed in the space itself which is posing the threat to the earth. If it enters in the zone of earth, there is no use of nuclear war heads: if they have time to do so also they will not save the planet and entities. The reality is they are not ready to dismantle the existing nuclear bombs and warheads. They just want to justify for keeping their nuclear war heads.

Now the USA and its allies are after China and North Korea. In their eyes, these countries have some sort of different social system which is proved better for the majority of the people and it is not based on the exploitation of the individual people. Recently “China entered and market competitor in the global trade and they said that it is a socialist market economy. Under the social system of China, the economy is growing around 8 to 10% of their GDP.

Arms industry is one of the biggest industries of these super powers. If these industries closed down due to lack of demand, they will lose a huge income for the country and unemployment will be increased dramatically. So they want to maintain the arms production. To maintain the arm production, they will try to create market creating terror around the globe. ‘USA is supplying patriotic missiles to the South Korea.22 It is justified that they have sold these because of protecting from the attack of North Korea. This is a form of creating terror for selling their arms.

‘Science has made the danger more eminent but the real problem lies in the minds and hearts of men, we always have the opinion to choose between hope and destruction but the choice is almost taken out of our hand forever. 23 Let us work for a better world to live in.

Reference.

1. One in Ten: UNICEF, Technical Program, Page 1, And Publisher: UNICEF. New York.
2. Against the Threat of another World War: Page 85, Boris Ponomarev. Publisher: Progress Publisher, Moscow 1983.
3. Ibid. Page 41.
4. Countdown to Space War: Page 6, Bhupendra Joshi and Christopher Lee. Publisher: SIPRI.
5. Ibid. Page 7.
6. Ibid. page 6.
7. Ibid. Page 7.
8. News Week, March 13, 1995. Page 48. Publisher: News Week Inc.
9. Herbicides in War: The long term ecological and Human consequences page: 3, Publisher: SIPRI.
10. Ibid, Page 4.
11. Ibid, Page 5.
12. UN General Assembly, 1984, Wed 7, UN Bulletin on Disarmament. Mr. Mastamad, Afghanistan.
13. Herbicides in War, The Long term ecological and human consequences: page 20, Publishe4r: SIPRI,
14. Bases Abroad: page 267, Robert Harkavy, Publisher: SIPRI. 1898.
15. Ibid, Page 269.
16. against the Threat of Another World War: Page 185. Boris Ponomarey, Progress Publishing House, Moscow, 1983.
17. Book of Facts: By: Asmovs-Under military.: Published In Great Britain 1980.
18. B.B.C. News, 1st June 1993.
19. Small is beautiful: Page 131, By: E.F.Schumacher 1973, London.
20. Against the Threat of another World War: Page 185. Boris Ponomarey, Progress Publishing House, Moscow, 1983.
21. Ibid. Page 40.
22. Daily News, April 20, 1994: Page 4, Department of Information and Broadcasting, Gaborone, Botswana.
23. Tari: Israeli Dele3gation, UN General Assembly. Wed-7, 1984 (30th Session) UN Bulleting on Disarmament.

The End